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Energy Harvesting: Off-grid Renewable Power for Devices, Vehicles, Structures 2015-2025

Published: May 2015 | No Of Pages: 213 | Published By: IDTechEx
Energy harvesting is a booming business at the level of watts to kilowatts and there is now reason to believe that lower power versions will also have considerable success over the coming decade. Electrical and electronic equipment needs less and less power and energy harvesting is producing more power, energy storage becoming more useful as well. This is underwritten by both strong demand for high power already and a recent flood of important new inventions that increase the power capability and versatility of many of the basic technologies of energy harvesting.
This unique 213 page report has 173 figures and tables. It reflects the new reality that energy harvesting - creation of off-grid electricity where it is needed, using ambient energy - is now one subject from microwatts for wireless sensors to kilowatts for vehicles and buildings. This is because it increasingly involves the same technologies, locations and companies. Vehicles, for example, need everything from wireless sensors driven by local harvesting providing milliwatts to traction battery charging from harvesting that can reach many kilowatts. Some technologies previously only capable of signal power are now proving scalable to higher power. It is all one business now but, for the coming decade, the largest addressable value market lies in the range of one watt to 10 kW so this will receive particular attention.
Only a global up-to-date view makes sense in this fast-moving subject. Therefore the multilingual PhD level IDTechEx analysts have travelled intensively in 2015 to report the latest research and expert opinions and to analyse how the markets and technologies will move over the coming decade. Original IDTechEx tables and infographics pull together the analysis
1.1. Definition and characteristics 
1.1.1. Definition 
1.1.2. Characteristics 
1.1.3. Exclusions 
1.2. Low and high power is now one business 
1.3. Some technologies succeeding faster than others 
1.4. Technological options 
1.5. EH is sometimes introduced then abandoned 
1.6. The needs for EH in the future 
1.6.1. Main market drivers and applications 
1.6.2. Power needs 
1.7. Market overview 
1.7.1. Largest value market by power 
1.7.2. Examples of high volume needs by number 
1.7.3. Difficult to value 
1.7.4. Maturity of market by application 
1.7.5. Success at all power levels but a problem sector 
1.8. Technology success by type 
1.8.1. By numbers and potential 
1.8.2. Examples of successes and technologies used 
1.8.3. High adoption begins with vehicles 
1.9. Electric and other vehicles 
1.10. EH systems 
1.10.1. Anatomy 
1.10.2. Transducer options compared for key applications 
1.10.3. Winners and losers 
1.11. Nature of technological options by intermittent power generated 
1.12. Hype curve for EH technologies 
1.13. Detailed parameters by technology 
1.14. Multiple energy harvesting 
1.14.1. Strong need 
1.14.2. Huge scope for multi-mode electrodynamics 
1.14.3. Multi-mode end game is structural electronics? 
1.15. Market forecast 2015-2025 
1.15.1. Forecasts by technology 
1.15.2. Market for power conditioning 
1.15.3. Technology timeline 2016-2025 
1.16. Detailed technology sector forecasts 2015-2025 
1.16.1. Electrodynamic 
1.16.2. Photovoltaic 
1.16.3. Thermoelectrics 
1.16.4. Piezoelectrics 
1.17. Territorial differences 
1.17.1. Emphasis 
1.17.2. Leading continents and countries 
2.1. Overview 
2.1.1. Applicational sectors 
2.1.2. System design: transducer, power conditioning, energy storage 
2.2. The environmental argument 
2.3. What is needed 
2.4. Technologies compared 
2.4.1. Parametric 
2.4.2. The favourite technologies 
2.5. Vibration, pressure and pulse harvesting 
2.5.1. Technologies competing 
2.6. Energy harvesting exotica in 2015 
2.6.1. Self-powered camera 
2.6.2. Hyper-stretchable piezoelastic composite 
2.6.3. Harvesting all energy from electromagnetic waves? 
2.6.4. Harnessing multiple electromagnetic energy 
2.6.5. Smart window harvesting wind and rain energy 
2.6.6. Super-efficient wave energy 
2.6.7. Harvesting bird and moth wings 
2.6.8. Energy harvesting to power life on Mars 
2.7. Significance of printing 
2.8. Combined harvesting and storage including flywheels 
3.1. Definition and scope 
3.2. Many modes and applications compared 
3.2.1. Options by medium 
3.2.2. Examples compared 
3.3. Flywheels 
3.4. Active regenerative suspension: Levant Power
3.5. Aerial power generation 
3.6. Regenerative braking 
3.6.1. Forklift 
3.7. Energy harvesting shock absorbers 
3.7.1. Linear shock absorbers 
3.7.2. Wattshocks 
3.7.3. Rotary shock absorbers 
4.1. Photovoltaic 
4.1.1. Flexible, conformal, transparent, UV, IR 
4.1.2. Technological options 
4.1.3. Principles of operation 
4.1.4. Options for flexible PV 
4.1.5. Many types of photovoltaics needed for harvesting 
4.1.6. Spray on power for electric vehicles and more 
4.2. Powerweave harvesting and storage e-fiber/ e-textile 
5.1. The Seebeck and Peltier effects 
5.2. Designing for thermoelectric applications 
5.3. Thin film thermoelectric generators 
5.4. Material choices 
5.5. Organic thermoelectrics - PEDOT:PSS, not just a transparent conductor 
5.6. Other processing techniques 
5.7. Manufacturing of flexible thermoelectric generators 
5.8. AIST technology details 
5.9. Automotive applications 5.9.1. BMW 
5.9.2. Ford 
5.9.3. Volkswagen 
5.9.4. Challenges of Thermoelectrics for Vehicles 
5.10. Wireless sensing 
5.10.1. TE-qNODE 
5.10.2. TE-CORE 
5.10.3. EverGen PowerStrap 
5.10.4. WiTemp 
5.10.5. GE- Logimesh 
5.11. Aerospace 
5.12. Wearable/implantable thermoelectrics 
5.13. Building and home automation 
5.14. Other applications 
5.14.1. Micropelt-MSX 
5.14.2. PowerPot™ 
5.15. Solar TEG
6.1. Technology options 
6.2. Materials 
6.2.1. Classic PZT 
6.2.2. Piezo polymers 
6.2.3. Piezo-composites 
6.2.4. Research frontiers 
6.3. Unusual capabilities
7.1. Electrostatic / capacitive 
7.2. Magnetostrictive 
7.3. Nantenna-diode rectenna arrays 
7.3.1. Idaho State Laboratory, University of Missouri, University of Colorado, Microcontinuum 
7.3.2. University of Maryland 
7.4. Thermoacoustic 
7.5. Not quite energy harvesting: microbial fuel cells, directed RF, betavoltaics 
9.1. Agusta Westland Italy 
9.2. Enerbee France 
9.3. Eight19 UK 
9.4. Faradair Aerospace UK 
9.5. Fraunhofer IIS Germany 
9.6. Fraunhofer IZM Germany 
9.7. Green GT Switzerland 
9.8. IFEVS Italy 
9.9. Jabil USA 
9.10. Komatsu KELK Japan 
9.11. LG Chem Korea 
9.12. Marlow USA 
9.13. Medtronic USA 
9.14. Pavegen UK 
9.15. Piezotech France 
9.16. RMT Russia and TEC Microsystems Germany 
9.17. Witt Energy UK 
9.18. Examples of recent research 
1.1. Comparison of desirable features of the EH technologies 
1.2. Typical power needs increasingly addressed by energy harvesting. Sensor-related in green. Personal devices and vehicles in red. Signalling in blue. Lighting and buildings in yellow. 
1.3. Microsensor power budget 
1.4. Options for switch activation by EH without batteries 
1.5. Typical transducer power range of the main technical options for energy harvesting transducer arrays - electrodynamic, photovoltaic and thermoelectric - and some less important ones shown in grey 
1.6. Potential for improving energy harvesting efficiency 
1.7. Technology focus of 200 organisations developing the different leading energy harvesting technologies
1.8. Power density provided by different forms of energy harvesting with exceptionally useful superlatives in yellow. Other parameters are optimal at different levels depending on system design. 
1.9. Good features and challenges of the four most important EH technologies in order of importance 
1.10. Proliferation of electrodynamic harvesting options. 
1.11. Global market for energy harvesting transducers (units million) 2015-2025 rounded 
1.12. Global market for energy harvesting transducers (unit price dollars) 2015-2025 
1.13. Global market for energy harvesting transducers (market value billion dollars) 2015-2025 rounded 
1.14. Timeline 2016-2025 with those advances most greatly impacting market size shown in yellow. 
1.15. Electrodynamics for Energy Harvesting units millions 2015-2025, dominant numbers in 2025 in yellow. 
1.16. Electrodynamic EH for regenerative braking in electric vehicles 2015-2025 number thousand 
1.17. Electrodynamic EH for regenerative braking in electric vehicles 2015-2025 notional unit value dollars given that these motors and generators double as other functions 
1.18. Notional total market value for electrodynamic EH for regenerative braking in electric vehicles 2015-2025 $ billion rounded 
1.19. Electrodynamic harvesting alternators in conventional internal combustion engined vehicles, number, notional unit value $ and value market $ billion 2015-2025 1.20. Electrodynamic harvesting Other, mainly energy harvesting shock absorbers, number, notional unit value $ and value market $ billion 2015-2025 
1.21. Photovoltaics for Energy Harvesting MW peak million 2015-2025 
1.22. Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting units thousand 2015-2025 
1.23. Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting units value dollars 2015-2025 
1.24. Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2015-2025 
1.25. Piezoelectrics for Energy Harvesting units thousand 2015-2025 
1.26. Piezoelectrics for Energy Harvesting unit value dollars 2015-2025 
1.27. Piezoelectrics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2015-2025 rounded 
1.28. Some highlights of global effort on energy harvesting 
2.1. Some classical applications with the type of transducer and energy storage typically chosen 
2.2. Some types of energy to harvest with examples of harvesting technology, applications, developers and suppliers 
2.3. Examples of the primary motivation to use energy harvesting by type of device 
2.4. Microsensor power budget 
2.5. Power density provided by different forms of energy harvesting. Best volumetric and gravimetric energy density. 
3.1. Some modes of electrodynamic energy harvesting with related processes highlighted in green 
3.2. Examples of actual electrodynamic harvesting by type, sub type and manufacturer with comment. Those in volume production now are in yellow, within five years in grey, those with much development but no volume production in blue an 
4.1. Comparison of pn junction and photoelectrochemical photovoltaics 
4.2. The main options for photovoltaics beyond conventional silicon compared 
6.1. Comparison of some piezoelectric EH technology options 
1.1. Examples of energy needs 
1.2. Maturity of different forms of energy harvesting 
1.3. Hype curve for energy harvesting applications 
1.4. Overall trend - more electricity produced and less needed makes more EH use possible but a problem in the middle. 
1.5. The successes of energy harvesting showing photovoltaic in red, electrodynamic in green, piezoelectric in red and thermoelectric in yellow. 
1.6. Proliferation of actual and potential energy harvesting in land vehicles 
1.7. Proliferation of actual and potential energy harvesting in marine vehicles 
1.8. Proliferation of actual and potential energy harvesting in airborne vehicles 
1.9. Solar traction power 
1.10. EH system diagram 
1.11. Some options compared for harvesting movement 
1.12. Global market value of the four leading energy harvesting technologies in 2015 and 2025 
1.13. Hype curve for EH transducer technologies 
1.14. Multiple energy harvesting 
1.15. HPP structure 
1.16. HPP envisaged application in buildings 
1.17. Envisaged marine application of HPP 
1.18. Main contributors to EH transducer sales 2015-2025. The technologies supplied by many large companies taking substantial orders are highlighted in green. 
1.19. Energy harvesting organisations by continent 
1.20. Organisations active in energy harvesting by country, numbers rounded 
2.1. Challenges and drivers of some EH applicational sectors 
2.2. Typical energy harvesting system 
2.3. Examples of companies and technologies in such systems 
2.4. Konarka vision of ubiquitous energy harvesting 
2.5. Power requirements of small electronic products 
2.6. Comparison of the power density ranges of different energy technologies 
2.7. The performance of the favourite energy harvesting technologies. Technologies with no moving parts are shown in red. Thermoelectric not so good when it needs fins 
2.8. Some applications of vibrational and pulse EH with a few rotational electrodynamic versions for comparison on right 
2.9. The hyper-stretchable harvester 
2.10. Full absorption antenna 
2.11. Printed piezoelectrics & pyroelectrics and printed thermoelectrics 
2.12. Flywheels compared with other energy storage 
2.13. Flybrid parallel hybrid flywheel 
2.14. Battery progress 
3.1. Oshkosh hybrid truck 
3.2. Electraflyer Trike 
3.3. Electraflyer uncowled 
3.4. Volvo Flywheel KERS components 
3.5. Volvo flywheel KERS system layout 
3.6. Magneto Marelli electrical KERS Motor Generator Unit 
3.7. The Marelli system 
3.8. Williams Formula One KERS flywheel 
3.9. GenShock prototype held by Humvee coil spring where it is installed 
3.10. Hydraulic energy harvesting from Levant Power 
3.11. Levant Power GenShock energy harvesting shock absorber 
3.12. Kitegen kite providing supplementary power to a ship 
3.13. Ocean Empire LSV concept with electricity from kites, waves and sun 
3.14. Simplest scheme for vehicle regenerative braking 
3.15. Nissan Lithium-ion forklift with regenerative braking 
3.16. Power potential of energy harvesting shock absorbers 
3.17. Energy harvesting shock absorbers being progressed by the State University of New York 
3.18. Tufts University and Electric Truck energy harvesting shock absorbers 
3.19. Wattshocks electricity generating shock absorber 
3.20. Wattshocks publicity 
4.1. Kopf Solarshiff pure electric solar powered lake boats in Germany and the UK for up to 150 people 
4.2. NREL adjudication of efficiencies under standard conditions 
4.3. Powerweave 
5.1. Representation of the Peltier (left) and the Seebeck (right) effect 
5.2. A general overview of the sequential manufacturing steps required in the construction of thermoelectric generators 
5.3. Generic schematic of thermoelectric energy harvesting system 
5.4. Figure of merit for some thermoelectric material systems 
5.5. Orientation map from a skutterudite sample 
5.6. Power Density and Sensitivity plotted for a variety of TEGs at a ΔT=30K 
5.7. % of Carnot efficiency for thermogenerators for different material systems 
5.8. Bulk Bi2Te3 sample consolidated from nanostructured powders that were formed by gas atomization, then hot pressed together 
5.9. Calculated figure-of-merit ZT for doped PbSe at various hole concentrations (main plot) and electron concentrations (inset) 
5.10. Experimental ZT values for PbSe 
5.11. The skutterudite crystal lattice structure 
5.12. A sample of skutterudite ore 
5.13. Polyhedral morphology of a ZrNiSn single crystal 
5.14. Atomic force micrograph of nanowire-polymer composite films of varying composition, and schematic of highly conductive interfacial phase 
5.15. A typical thermoelectric element 
5.16. Schematic of the inside of a typical thermoelectric element 
5.17. Sputtered thermoelectric material on wafer substrate 
5.18. Detail of thermocouple legs. (3.3mmx3.3mm area containing 540 thermocouples, 140mV/K) 
5.19. Electrochemically deposited Bi2Te3 legs with high aspect ratios 
5.20. The fabrication method of the CNT-polymer composite material (top), and an electron microscope image of its surface (lower) 
5.21. A flexible thermoelectric conversion film fabricated by using a printing process (left) and its electrical power-generation ability (right). A temperature difference created by placing a hand on the film installed on the 10 °C pla 
5.22. Energy losses in a vehicle 
5.23. Opportunities to harvest waste energy 
5.24. Ford Fusion, BMW X6 and Chevrolet Suburban. US Department of Energy thermoelectric generator programs 
5.25. Pictures from the BMW thermogenerator developments, as part of EfficientDynamics 
5.26. Ford's anticipate 500W power output from their thermogenerator 
5.27. The complete TEG designed by Amerigon 
5.28. High and medium temperature TE engines 
5.29. The Micropelt-Schneider TE-qNODE 
5.30. The TE-qNODE in operation, attached to busbars 
5.31. The TE Core from Micropelt
5.32. The EverGen PowerStrap from Marlow 
5.33. EverGen PowerStrap performance graphs 
5.34. EverGen exchangers can vary in sizes from a few cubic inches to several cubic feet. Pictured also, a schematic of a TEG exchanger's main components 
5.35. ABB's WiTemp wireless temperature transmitter 
5.36. GE's wireless sensor with Perpetua's Powerpuck 
5.37. Logimesh's Logimote, developed in collaboration with Marlow 
5.38. A drawing of a general purpose heat source (GPHS)-RTG used for Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini-Huygens and New Horizons space probes 
5.39. One of the Cassini spacecraft's three RTGs, photographed before installation 
5.40. Labelled cutaway view of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator 
5.41. Nuclear-powered pace maker, Source: Los Alamos National Laboratory 
5.42. Power emanating from various parts of the human body 
5.43. The en:key products: A thermoelectric powered radiator valve and solar powered central control unit for home automation applications 
5.44. The sentinel, a window positioning sensor developed by the Fraunhofer institute in Germany 
5.45. Thermoelectric Energy harvesting on hot water/gas pipes 
5.46. MSX-Micropelt cooking sensor 
5.47. PowerPot with basic USB charger se 
5.48. Backside of the PowerPot™, showing the flame resistant cable and connector 
5.49. MIT solar TEG 
6.1. Some piezoelectric options compared 
7.1. Principle of electrostatic EH 
7.2. LED lit by electret electrostatic EH made experimentally by THINK in the UK in 2015, excited by shaking 
7.3. Experimental configurations for electrostatic vibration harvesters
7.4. Villari effect 
7.5. Rectenna, nantenna-diode pairs for energy harvesting of light
7.6. RFR harvesting of ambient emissions 
7.7. Infrared rectenna harvesting 
7.8. Microbial fuel cell concept for producing both electricity and hydrogen for fuel cell electric vehicles etc. 
8.1. Forms of multi-mode energy harvesting 
9.1. BEHA aircraft 
9.2. Solar facilities 
9.3. BMS for microTEGs 
9.4. Two way thermoelectrics 
9.5. Wrist health monitor using heat difference. 
9.6. Field tests on railway waggons to record vibration spectrum 
9.7. SystemsOval Wheel Counter with Self-powered COM-Link 
9.8. Shaker electrodynamic harvester for displays and wireless sensors 
9.9. Sensor with microcontroller 
9.10. Self-powered Window Monitoring System 
9.11. Racing car enabled by Green GT 
9.12. Green GT 400kW fuel cell powered racer 
9.13. IFEVS arguments 
9.14. View of fuel cell vehicles and their hydrogen 
9.15. Uniques of thermoelectric harvesting 
9.16. RMT range and positioning 
9.17. Ground spikes as energy harvesting powered transmitters 
9.18. Example given of multi-mode harvesting to come. 
9.19. Witt presentation at IDTechEx event Berlin April 2015 - extracts
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