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OLED Display Forecast 2015-2025: the Rise of Plastic and Flexible Displays

Published: Feb 2015 | No Of Pages: 253 | Published By: IDTechEx
LED displays are thinner, lighter, and offer better color performances compared to backlit liquid crystal displays (LCD). OLED displays are already mass produced for mobile phones and OLEDs will continue gaining market share against LCD technology.   
The next evolution is plastic and flexible displays. IDTechEx expects the first flagship phone with a flexible display to ship in 2017. Based on this scenario, the market for plastic and flexible AMOLED displays will rise to $16bn by 2020.
The rise of plastic and flexible displays will be accompanied by a shift from glass substrates to plastic substrates such as polyimide. However, glass-based displays will remain an important technology, especially in TV applications where scale-up and cost reduction are still big challenges. Flat and curved OLED TVs were recently launched by Samsung and LG to critical acclaim. However, manufacturers are hedging their bets by investing in LCD backlights enhanced with quantum dots. These so-called "quantum dot LCD" TVs will be positioned as a cheaper upgrade from existing sets. Nevertheless, the market for OLED TV panels will experience steady growth over the next decade, with a projected 25% CAGR. 
Based on a deep understanding of the technology roadmap and the existing bottlenecks, IDTechEx has forecasted the OLED display market in eight segments:   
  • Mobile phone displays 
  • Tablet and notebook displays 
  • TV panels 
  • Automotive and aerospace 
  • Wearable electronics 
  • Industrial and professional displays 
  • Microdisplays 
  • Other applications
DTechEx has been tracking printed, organic, and flexible electronics since 2001. This report gives a unique perspective on the OLED display market, leveraging the full expertise of our analysts and the direct interviews with companies in the value chain.
1.1. An industry transitioning from LCD manufacturing 
1.2. Why flexible displays? 
1.2.1. The need to differentiate 
1.2.2. Enabling future form factors 
1.3. Technology Roadmap: components needed for a flexible OLED display 
1.4. Technology roadmap: OLED televisions 
2.1. Samsung Display (SDC) 
2.1.1. Novaled acquisition 
2.1.2. A3 plant 
2.1.3. OLED TV 
2.1.4. Tablet displays 
2.2. LG Display (LGD) 
2.3. BOE 
2.4. AU Optronics (AUO) 
2.5. Shenzhen China Star Optoelectronics Technology (CSOT) 
2.6. Visionox 
2.7. Sony 
2.8. Panasonic 
2.9. Japan Display Inc (JDI) 
2.10. Sharp 
2.11. Toshiba 
3.1. Printed TFT backplanes 
3.1.1. Why print TFTs? 
3.1.2. Japan leading the R&D in printed TFTs 
3.2. Growing availability of printable OLED materials 
3.2.1. Polymer OLED from Cambridge Display Technology (Sumitomo) 
3.2.2. Solution processed small molecules 
3.3. Inkjet Printed OLED 
3.3.1. Printing vs. vapour deposition 
3.3.2. Panasonic 
3.3.3. Sony 
3.3.4. BOE 
3.3.5. AU Optronics 
3.3.6. Kateeva 
4.1. Mobile displays 
4.2. Computers: Tablets and Notebooks 
4.3. TV and monitors 
4.3.1. LGD taking the lead 
4.3.2. Competing technologies 
4.4. Wearable electronics 
4.5. Automotive and Aerospace 
4.6. Industrial and professional displays 
4.7. Microdisplays 
4.8. Others 
5.1. Definition of OLED display technologies 
5.1.1. AMOLED rigid glass 
5.1.2. AMOLED rigid plastic 
5.1.3. AMOLED flexible 
5.1.4. PMOLED 
5.1.5. Segmented 
5.1.6. Microdisplays 
5.2. Revenue forecast by market segment 
5.3. Shipment forecast by market segment 
5.4. Revenue forecast by technology
5.5. Shipment forecast by technology 
5.6. Details by market segment 
5.6.1. Mobile phones 
5.6.2. Tablets/Notebooks 
5.6.3. TV and monitors 
5.6.4. Wearable devices 
5.6.5. Automotive and aerospace 
5.6.6. Industrial/Professional displays 
5.6.7. Microdisplays 
5.6.8. Others 
5.7. Additional figures 
5.7.1. Compound annual growth rate 
5.7.2. Market share for each segment 
5.7.3. Revenue forecast for Plastic and Flexible OLED displays 
6. FLEXIBLE SUBSTRATES 6.1. Requirements 
6.1.1. Key challenges of flexible substrates 
6.1.2. Process temperature by substrate type 
6.2. Benchmarking by material type 
6.3. Company profiles 
6.3.1. DuPont Teijin Films 
6.3.2. ITRI 
6.3.3. Samsung Ube Materials 
6.3.4. Kolon Industries 
6.3.5. Corning 
6.3.6. AGC Asahi Glass
7.1. Pixel circuit in Active Matrix backplanes 
7.1.1. OLED displays are current driven 
7.1.2. Amorphyx: replacing TFT with diodes 
7.2. Semiconductor materials 
7.2.1. Benchmarking of the main technologies 
7.2.2. Organic TFT 
7.2.3. Metal oxide TFT 
7.3. Passive matrix OLED (PMOLED) 
7.4. Company profiles 
7.4.1. Plastic Logic 
7.4.2. CBrite 
7.4.3. Arizona State University 
7.4.4. SmartKem 
7.4.5. Polyera 
7.4.6. Flexink 
7.4.7. Merck (EMD Chemicals) 
7.4.8. BASF 
8.1. Role of each layer 
8.2. Shadow mask vs. White OLED 
8.2.1. Fine metal mask (FMM) 
8.2.2. Yellow emitter with color filters 
8.2.3. White OLED approach 
8.3. Subpixel layouts 
8.4. Table of suppliers 
8.5. Suppliers in China 
8.5.1. Beijing Aglaia Technology Development Co 
8.5.2. Borun New Material Technology Co. (Borun Chemical Co) 
8.5.3. Jilin Optical & Electronic Materials Co 
8.5.4. Visionox 
8.5.5. Xi'an Ruilian Modern Electronic Chemicals Co., Ltd 
8.6. Suppliers in Europe 
8.6.1. Heraeus 
8.6.2. Merck 
8.6.3. Novaled 
8.6.4. Cynora 
8.7. Suppliers in Japan 
8.7.1. Hodogaya 
8.7.2. Idemitsu Kosan 
8.7.3. JNC (ex Chisso) 
8.7.4. Konica Minolta 
8.7.5. Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation 
8.7.6. Mitsui Chemicals 
8.7.7. Nippon Steel & Sumikin Chemical 
8.7.8. Nissan Chemical Industries 
8.7.9. Sumitomo Chemical 
8.7.10. Toray Industries 
8.8. Suppliers in Korea 
8.8.1. Cheil Industries 
8.8.2. Daejoo Electronic Materials Company 
8.8.3. Doosan Corporation ElectroMaterials 
8.8.4. Dow Chemical 
8.8.5. Duksan Hi-Metal 
8.8.6. LG Chem 
8.8.7. Sun Fine Chemical Co (SFC) 
8.9. Suppliers in Taiwan 
8.9.1. E-Ray Optoelectronics 
8.9.2. Luminescence Technology Co. 
8.9.3. Nichem Fine Technology 
8.10. Suppliers in USA 
8.10.1. DuPont 
8.10.2. Plextronics (Solvay) 
8.10.3. Universal Display Corporation 
9.1. Developed for touch, used in displays 
9.2. A range of technologies available 
9.3. Table of suppliers 
9.4. Company profiles 
9.4.1. Blue Nano 
9.4.2. Cambrios 
9.4.3. CNano 
9.4.4. Canatu 
9.4.5. NanoIntegris 
9.4.6. Heraeus 
9.4.7. Agfa 
10.1. Why encapsulation is needed 
10.1.1. Organic semiconductors are sensitive to air and moisture 
10.1.2. Requirements for barrier films 
10.1.3. Different ways barriers are implemented 
10.1.4. Dyad concept 
10.2. Different barrier technologies available 
10.2.1. Pros and cons of each approach 
10.2.2. List of technology suppliers 
10.3. Vitex Technology (Samsung) 
10.4. Flexible glass 
10.5. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) 
10.5.1. Beneq 
10.5.2. Encapsulix
1.1. Technology roadmap for flexible OLED displays 
1.2. Technology roadmap for OLED televisions 
2.1. LGD flexible OLED panel 
2.2. Display production in mainland China 
4.1. Mobile phone brands with Samsung Display OLED panels 
5.1. OLED display market size by segments ($ million) 
5.2. OLED display market size by segments (M unit) 
5.3. OLED display market by display type ($ million)
5.4. OLED display market by display type (M unit) 
7.1. Comparison of OTFT against other technologies 
7.2. Various flexible display demonstrators made with OTFT 
7.3. Current status of IGZO vs. a-Si and LTPS 
7.4. Various flexible display demonstrators made with oxide TFT 
8.1. Suppliers of OLED materials
8.2. Material sales 
9.1. Table of suppliers 
10.1. Water vapor and oxygen transmission rates of various materials 
10.2. Requirements of barrier materials 
10.3. Dyads or inorganic layers on polymer substrates: main performance metrics for some of the most important developers 
1.1. Display value chain 
1.2. Difference between OLED and LCD 
1.3. Evolution of TFT-LCD glass substrate size 
1.4. Glass substrate sizes by generation 
1.5. Sizes from Gen 1 to Gen 10 
1.6. Multiple displays per glass sheet 
1.7. Example of increasing TV sizes 
1.8. Selling points of flexible displays 
1.9. Flexible displays will fill the gap which arises from the demand for more portable devices but larger screen sizes 
1.10. Possible evolution of form factors for mobile phones 
1.11. Possible evolution of form factors for tablets 
1.12. Basic stack structure of AMLCD and AMOLED 
1.13. Roadmap towards flexible AMOLED displays and flexible electronics devices 
2.1. Samsung AMOLED production 
2.2. Expected revenue growth for Samsung Display 
2.3. Choice of TFT technology for LCD and OLED 
2.4. Samsung's introduction to Youm 
2.5. Samsung's involvement in the key technologies for flexible OLED 
2.6. Samsung CapEx plan 
2.7. 55" and 77" curved OLED TV by LG 
2.8. WRGB OLED structure from LG 
2.9. Plastic OLED display at SID 2013 
2.10. Face sealing encapsulation 
2.11. Laser assisted release 
2.12. Circular plastic AMOLED 
2.13. Flexible display roadmap by LG Display 
2.14. AMOLED development from 2011 to 2013 
2.15. AMOLED technology for TV application 
2.16. BOE backplane technology development 
2.17. Flexible display rolled at 20mm curvature radius 
2.18. Structure of the flexible OLED display 
2.19. AUO OLED history 
2.20. Flexible 
4.3" display demonstrated in 2010 
2.21. Flexible 5" AMOLED display presented at SID2014 
2.22. Shenzhen CSOT AMOLED roadmap 
2.23. Flexible PMOLED backplane 
2.24. Structure of the flexible PMOLED panel 
2.25. Visionox AMOLED project 
2.26. 3.5 inch LTPS flexible full-color AMOLED 
2.27. Super Top Emission 
2.28. Rollable
4.1" display presented in 2010 
2.29. Panasonic 4K 56" OLED TV at CES 2013 
2.30. Structure of a 4" OLED displays made on a PEN substrate 
2.31. JDI strategy 
2.32. Sharp's TFT technologies 
2.33. Flexible display with IGZO backplane presented at SID 2013 
2.34. Flexible 
3.4" QHD OLED display by Sharp 
2.35. Sharp and Pixtronic MEMS 
2.36. Comparison between IGZO with a-Si and poly-Si 
2.37. Flexible AMOLED panel fabrication 
2.38. Photograph of the 10.2" flexible OLED display 
3.1. Traditional vs. printing methods 
3.2. Many printable semiconductor materials 
3.3. Device structure 
3.4. Electrical properties of the printed TFTs 
3.5. Fully printed, organic, thin-film transistor array 
3.6. Organic TFT based on ambient conductive metal nanoparticles 
3.7. Formation of organic semiconductor layer 
3.8. Transfer characteristics of printed OTFT 
3.9. Screen printed array 
3.10. Device structure with floating gate 
3.11. Offset based printing method 
3.12. Devices demonstrated by Toppan Printing 
3.13. Electrophoretic display with printed TFT array 
3.14. Electrophoretic display made with a printed TFT backplane at 200 ppi 
3.15. Inkjet printing process 
3.16. Photograph of the printed oxide TFTs on glass substrate 
3.17. PLED performance data 
3.18. Lifetime and efficiency 
3.19. Printing process 
3.20. UDC printable OLED materials 
3.21. Printing seen as an area of future growth (presented in June 2014) 
3.22. Characteristics of OLED production technologies 
3.23. Development of OLED printing 
3.24. Comparison of OLED printing versus OLED vapor deposition 
3.25. Panasonic 4K 56" OLED TV at CES 2013 
3.26. Sony 3" printed OLED demonstrator at SID 2011 
3.27. Printing process in 3 steps 
3.28. Structure of the hybrid printed OLED structure 
3.29. Pixel structure of the 17" printed OLED display 
3.30. Development of EL technology 1 
3.31. Development of EL technology 2 
3.32. Device structure 
3.33. Picture of the 65" printed TV 
3.34. Inkjet printing equipment designed for OLED display production 
3.35. Kateeva YIELDjet 
3.36. Improving the T95 lifetime 
4.1. S-Stripe pixel layout on the Motorola Moto X (left) and the Samsung Galaxy Note 2 (right) 
4.2. Samsung Galaxy Round and LG G Flex 
4.3. Concept of foldable phone display 
4.4. Concept of a rollable phone display 
4.5. Samsung Galaxy Tab S 
4.6. The world's first OLED tablet computer 
4.7. 55" and 77" curved OLED TV by LG 
4.8. Comparison with a conventional TV 
4.9. 55-in Crystal LED prototype 
4.10. Gear Fit smartwatch with 1.84" Curved Super AMOLED (432x128) 
4.11. Gear Fit curved display 
4.12. Samsung Gear S and LG G Watch R 
4.13. Asus ZenWatch with a 1.63" AMOLED display 
4.14. 1.3" PMOLED in a smartwatch 
4.15. LG Lifeband Touch with monochrome display 
4.16. Huawei Talkband B1 with monochrome display 
4.17. Futaba PMOLED 
4.18. Flexible display prototype driven by OTFT 
4.19. Apple Watch at the product launch event in September 2014 
4.20. PMOLED display used in Chrysler's Grand Cherokee 
4.21. PMOLED display used in GM's Chevrolet Corvette 
4.22. OLED display in the Lexus RX can display graphics and text 
4.23. Automotive displays from Futaba
 4.24. Digital rear-view mirror on the Audi R18 race car 
4.25. BMW M6 OLED display 
4.26. BMW M Performance Alcantara steering wheel with built-in PMOLED display 
4.27. AMOLED in automotive 
4.28. Sony 25" professional monitor 
4.29. eMagin's microdisplays 
4.30. Samsung NX30 with a 3" AMOLED display 
4.31. Microsoft Zune HD with 3.3" display 
4.32. The original Sony PSP Vita with a 5" OLED display 
4.33. Game controller with a small display 
5.1. OLED display market size by segments ($ million) 
5.2. OLED display market size by segments (M unit) 
5.3. OLED display market by display type ($ million) 
5.4. OLED display market by display type (M unit)
 5.5. Mobile phones ($ million) 
5.6. Mobile phones (M units) 
5.7. Tablet/Notebook displays ($ million) 
5.8. Tablet/Notebook displays (M units) 
5.9. TV and monitors ($ million) 
5.10. TV and monitors (M units) 
5.11. Wearable devices ($ million) 
5.12. Wearable devices (M units) 
5.13. Automotive and aerospace ($ million) 
5.14. Automotive and aerospace (M units) 
5.15. Industrial/Professional displays ($ million) 
5.16. Industrial/Professional displays (M units) 
5.17. Microdisplays ($ millions) 
5.18. Microdisplays (M units) 
5.19. Others ($ million) 
5.20. Others (M units) 
5.21. CAGR by market segment 
5.22. OLED market share for each segment as percentage of total market size 
5.23. Revenue forecast for plastic and flexible OLED displays 
6.1. Glass transition temperature (Tg) for various plastic substrates
 6.2. Upper operating temperature 
6.3. Heat stabilised PET and PEN 
6.4. Benchmarking based on 8 parameters 
6.5. FlexUP process for display backplane using a non-sticking debonding layer 
6.6. Key technologies for Samsung's flexible AMOLED displays 
7.1. Typical active matrix circuit for LCD, using one TFT and one storage capacitor per pixel 
7.2. (A) Example of a basic 2T1C circuit. (B) 4T1C circuit implementing voltage compensation 
7.3. Benchmarking of the semiconductor materials 
7.4. Improvement in carrier mobility of organic semiconductors over the last 30 years 
7.5. Organic materials can be rolled over a small radius 
7.6. Comparison between metal oxide and organic TFTs 
7.7. Foldable display by SEL and Nokia 
7.8. Tri-Fold Flexible AMOLED 
7.9. Historical annual sales from various suppliers of AMOLED and PMOLED 
7.10. Curved PMOLED display 
7.11. Film OLED product launch plan 
7.12. Glass-free OLED film 
7.13. Flexible PMOLED backplane 
7.14. Structure of the flexible PMOLED panel 
8.1. Typical OLED material stack in bottom emission OLED 
8.2. Function of each layer 8.3. Various configurations for OLED materials 
8.4. Distinction between bottom-emission and top-emission OLED 
8.5. Vapour deposition using fine mesh mesh 
8.6. Alternatives to FMM 
8.7. Two-mask display architecture 
8.8. Simulation results for the two-mask display architecture 
8.9. WOLED was initially developed by Kodak 8.10. Principles of tandem white OLED 
8.11. White OLED architecture used in microdisplays 8.12. iPhone 5 (LCD), traditional RGB stripe 
8.13. Galaxy S3, Pentile S-stripe layout 
8.14. Galaxy S4, Diamond layout 
8.15. Galaxy S5 (diamond layout): 
8.16. Hodogaya business structure 
8.17. R&D activity of Idemitsu 
8.18. OLED material production plant, Paju 
8.19. Current performance of Konica Minolta 
8.20. Proprietary blue phosphorescent emitter 
8.21. Priority initiatives by sector 
8.22. Cheil Industries growth strategy 
8.23. Cheil's OLED materials sales 
8.24. Color performance from SFC 
8.25. Facilities in Korea 
8.26. UDC presentation slides 
8.27. UDC historical revenues 
9.1. Benchmarking different TCF and TCG technologies 
10.1. OLED and OPV have the most demanding requirements 
10.2. Schematic diagrams for encapsulated structures 
a) conventional 
b) laminated 
c) deposited in situ 
10.3. Scanning electron micrograph image of a barrier film cross section 
10.4. Design compromise for flexible barriers 
10.5. Lab WVTR achieved (in g/sq.m./day)in research for each of the companies involved in the development of flexible encapsulation solutions 
10.6. Surge in patent publications 
10.7. Examples of polymer multi-layer (PML) surface planarization a) OLED cathode separator structure b) high aspect ratio test structure 
10.8. Vitex multilayer deposition process 
10.9. SEM cross section of Vitex Barix material with four dyads 
10.10. Optical transmission of Vitex Barix coating 
10.11. Edge seal barrier formation by deposition through shadow masks 
10.12. Three dimensional barrier structure. Polymer is shown in red, and oxide (barrier) shown in blue 
10.13. Schematic of flexible OLED with hybrid encapsulation 
10.14. Corning's Flexible glass with protective tabbing on the edges
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